Publication Ethics

Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statements

Our publication ethics and publication malpractice statements are largely based on our Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guide for Journal Editors (Committee on Publication Ethics, 2011).

Editorial Board Responsibilities

1. Publication Decision

The editorial board is responsible for deciding which manuscripts are submitted to the journal to be published. The Chief Editor's decision to accept or reject a manuscript for publication is based on its importance, originality, clarity, and relevance to the scope of the journal.

2. Fair Play

The Editorial Board and reviewers evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to the author's race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, nationality, or political ideology.

3. Confidentiality

The Editorial Board must ensure that all material submitted to the journal remains confidential when reviewed. The editorial board and editorial staff must not disclose any information about submitted manuscripts to anyone other than the appropriate authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisors, and the publisher, as appropriate.

4. Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Unpublished material disclosed in a submitted paper will not be used by editors or members of the editorial board for their own research purposes without the express written consent of the author.

5. Self-Citation Journal

An editor shall not engage in any practice requiring authors to cite their journal as either an implied or express condition of acceptance for publication. Any recommendations regarding articles to be cited in the manuscript must be made on the basis of direct relevance to the author's article, with the aim of improving the final published research. Editors must direct authors to relevant literature as part of the peer review process; however, this should never include instructions to cite individual journals.

6. Involvement and Cooperation in Investigations

An editor must take sufficiently responsive steps when an ethical complaint has been raised regarding a submitted manuscript or published paper, together with the publisher (or the public). Such steps will generally include contacting the authors of the manuscript or paper and giving appropriate consideration to the respective complaints or claims made, but may also include further communication with relevant research institutes and bodies, and if the complaint is upheld, publication of the corrections. , retractions, expressions of concern, or other notes that may be relevant. Any reported acts of unethical publishing behavior should be looked into, even if they are discovered years after publication.

7. Publication Decision

The Editor-in-Chief of the journal is responsible for deciding which of the submitted articles should be published. The Editor-in-Chief can be guided by the policies of the journal's Editorial Board and limited by legal requirements that will apply regarding defamation, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.

Responsibilities of Reviewers

1. Contribution to Editorial Decisions

The peer-review process assists editors and editorial boards in making editorial decisions and can also serve authors in improving papers.

2. Accuracy

Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review research reported in a manuscript or knows that a rapid review is not possible must notify the editor and withdraw from the review process.

3. Confidentiality

Any manuscript received for review must be treated as a confidential document. They may not be disclosed or discussed with others except as permitted by the editors.

4. Objectivity Standards

The review must be carried out objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees must express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

5. Source Acknowledgment

The reviewer should identify cases where the relevant published work mentioned in the manuscript has not been cited in the references section. They must indicate whether observations or arguments derived from other publications are accompanied by their respective sources. Reviewers will notify editors of any substantial similarities or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and other published papers of which they have personal knowledge.

6. Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal gain. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have a conflict of interest arising from competition, collaboration, a